Bob Schwartz



In the adapted words of a PBS profile:

He was a small man with a crippled foot, a disproportionately large head and a fragile body. He was much disliked because of his malice and ill will, and though a mesmerizing orator, he lacked charisma. Nevertheless, he was a man of tremendous enthusiasm with an endless supply of ideas, and a master of mass psychology.

He was made propaganda chief. After the party came to power, he began to clamp down on all forms of artistic expression. He took control of the news media, making sure that it presented domestic and foreign policy aims in terms of party ideology. He played probably the most important role in creating an atmosphere in the country that made it possible for the party to commit terrible atrocities.

He devoted much of his efforts to boosting morale. He wrote innumerable articles and speeches rousing the people, promising wonders and providing projections he knew were pure fantasy.

Who is this man? And why is he here?

Virginia Peace Medal (1780): Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God/Happy While United

Virginia Peace Medal

The Virginia Indian peace medal was produced by order of Governor Thomas Jefferson in 1780. The obverse side reads: Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God. The reverse side reads: Happy While United

The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation says:

This extremely rare Virginia Indian peace medal was produced by order of Governor Thomas Jefferson in 1780. Matchless in the history of relations between the independent Commonwealth of Virginia and the region’s native tribes, the “Happy While United” peace medal was cast in bronze by Robert Scot—later chief engraver at the U.S. Mint— in Williamsburg or Richmond while Jefferson was governor.

Commemorating an unidentified Revolutionary-era alliance between native tribes and the Commonwealth, silver medals were presented to important tribal members, while bronze versions were cast for non-native recipients. None of the twelve silver medals originally produced survive as they were likely traded in for later Presidential Indian peace medals or buried with the native recipients upon their deaths.

At nearly three inches in diameter and more than 2.5 ounces in weight, the medal is based on designs by noted artist Pierre Eugene du Simitiere and New York silversmith Daniel Christian Feuter. A bronze medal, identical to the one acquired by Colonial Williamsburg, was recorded as a gift from Isaac Zane of the Marlboro Iron Works—a patriot munitions factory in Frederick County during the American Revolution—to du Simitiere prior to May 1781.

The medal uses one the earliest versions of the fledgling Commonwealth’s official seal depicting the goddess Virtue standing triumphant over a fallen tyrant—most certainly meant to represent King George III—surrounded by the inscription “Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God.”

The reverse side of the medal incorporates a scene from an earlier medal made in New York during the 1760s and depicts a European-American and a Native American seated on a bench sharing a “peace pipe.” To the right is a tree, shading the two figures, and behind them is a waterfront scene with three vessels under sail. The over-arching inscription reads “Happy While United” with “1780” below the scene.

Supremely Lost

First be confused
Conflicted confounded.
Uncertainty an invitation
Not an obstacle.
Vivid and loud chaos
Is dangerous.
What if we surrender
And never return?
But how else can we be found
Without being supremely lost?